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Bellum Postmodernum – Part 2

The Roman Empire’s aggressive expansionist policy necessitated a flexible definition of what it meant to be ‘Roman’, while recognizing that every amendment had to remain tethered to the rigid notion of inherent Roman superiority over other peoples and cultures. C.…

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Bellum Postmodernum – Part 1

Much of a group, culture, or nation’s ideological framework is often based on the seemingly simple concept of ‘us versus them’. Lutfiye Oktar notes that, ‘The relations between discourse and ideology [where] … ideological discourse is constructed socio-politically [functions] as…

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Rejecting the False God of Democracy

Despite the commentariat’s deep concern that American public figures from Huey Long to Barry Goldwater to Donald Trump ‘imperil our democracy’, few can articulate why, exactly, this is the case, and even fewer can precisely define what they mean by…

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When Logos and Pathos are Drawn into Opposition

Aristotle divided the means of persuasion into three categories: logos (logic and reason), ethos (ethics, morality, and credibility), and pathos (emotion). The logos has come to define Western civilization and its quest for objective truth, which has impelled human progress…

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